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The Impact of the Proposed Changes in Capital Gains Rates

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Much has been discussed in the media, and in family circles, regarding the potential implications of the “Bush tax cuts” set to expire at the end of 2012.  Not being tax folks, but interested in the impact, we decided to research the issue to get a layperson’s understanding of what exactly is supposed to change and how it might affect most people.  After much research, two sources proved to be the most helpful – the IRS.gov and the Goldman Sachs (www.gs.com) websites.  Here’s a summary of our key findings from these sources:

Background

  • All of the primary Bush era income tax cuts are scheduled to expire at the end of 2012 under the law’s “sunset” provisions if Congress does not act (and “sunset” occurs).
  • While the Administration has proposed continuing to tax dividends at capital gains rates in the future, if no action is taken and sunset occurs, qualified dividends will be taxed at ordinary income rates instead of the lower capital gains rate at the end of 2012.

Potential Impact

  • The 2013 income tax rates for most taxpayers will increase.
  • Income tax rate changes from 2012 to 2013 that would result in the event of sunset are listed in the chart to the right (tax brackets for married couples filing jointly):
After giving effect to all the sur-taxes and stealth taxes, the effective tax rates for the highest bracket of earners will be as follows:
  1. Includes marginal income tax change, investment income surtax and stealth tax change
  2. Includes marginal income tax change, stealth tax  change and Medicare tax change

Proposed Tax Law Changes – A Detailed Look

  • The highest earners (>$379,150 of household income) will realize the largest tax % increases in 2013.
    • Ordinary income rate goes from 35% to 39.6% (a 13.1% increase)
    • Long-term capital gains rate goes from 15% to 20% (a 33.3% increase)
    • Qualified dividends rate goes from 15% to 39.6% (a 164% increase).
  • Itemized deductions to be less favorable
    • The tax rule reducing a taxpayer’s itemized deductions by a specified percentage of the amount by which adjusted gross income (AGI) exceeds a threshold does not apply in 2012 but returns in 2013. The limitation occurs on Schedule A, tax Form 1040.
    • In 2013, the reduction will equal the lesser of (i) 3% of that excess income or (ii) 80% of the itemized deductions (such as charitable contributions) subject to this rule.
    • For a taxpayer with $5 million of AGI in 2013, deductions will be reduced by about $145,000.
    • This rule is often referred to as a “stealth tax” because reducing deductions by 3% of the excess AGI potentially increases the 2013 marginal tax rate thereon from 39.6% to 40.8%.
  • Investment income may receive a 3.8% surtax for folks making >$200k.
    • The health care reform law enacted in 2010 includes a new 3.8% surtax on investment income (such as gains, interest and dividends) for individuals with AGI in excess of $200,000 and married couples with AGI in excess of $250,000. This surtax begins in 2013.
    • Surtax increases the top marginal rate on investment income, other than long-term capital gains (and possibly qualified dividends), to 43.4% (or 44.6% taking into account the aforementioned “stealth tax”).
    • Surtax increases top long-term capital gains rate to 23.8% (or 25% taking into account the “stealth tax”).

At first glance, it would appear that the wealthiest people are being punished the most.  Though some would argue that, based on the chart below, the rich have been getting favorable tax breaks for the last thirty years that are finally going away; here’s a chart of the historical Long Term Cap Gains tax rates per IRS.gov and the US Treasury Department:

Regardless of your opinion about the fairness and distribution of the tax changes, the implications are significant for all; be sure to consult with your tax advisor if these changes take place!

-James Timberview/www.pluraFinancial.com

Disclaimer: As Goldman points out, information related to amounts and rates set forth under U.S. tax laws are drawn from current public sources, including Goldman Sachs’ April 2012 report on “The Potential Impact of Planned Tax Rate Increases on After Tax Values” and  the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, as well as regulations and other public pronouncements of the U.S. Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service. Such information may be subject to change without notice. In some cases, rates may be estimated and may vary based on your particular circumstances.

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Written by entrabanker

June 21, 2012 at 8:38 pm

What is SUI Tax?

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-James Timberview/pluraFinancial.com

SUI tax stands for State Unemployment Insurance tax.   This seemingly minor line item in your company’s payroll taxes can add up quickly, so pay close attention to it.  Like so many other government tax rates, the SUI rate is difficult to understand/calculate.  But we’ll try to explain this vastly over-engineered calculation in a way that’s (hopefully) a bit easier to understand.

At the simplest level, the SUI tax rate goes up (or down) over time as your unemployment claims go up (or down), but with a % limit, in order to help the government pay unemployment insurance to folks that have been laid off.  New businesses get a fixed SUI tax rate, usually 4.35%, because new businesses have no prior track record of unemployment claims.  The SUI for existing businesses can change each year depending on how many unemployment insurance claims your employees have filed over the past few years.

According to the Illinois Department of Unemployment Security, most new businesses will pay a fixed SUI tax rate of 4.35% (of total payroll).  That’s a staggering amount of money for any business with meaningful payroll.  Certain industries that have relatively high propensity to lay people off (e.g. construction) have an even higher SUI tax rate (e.g. 5.25%).

If you’ve had any employees file for unemployment in the last few years, your SUI is subject to change each year (“variable”) and according to the IDES is based on the following calculation:

[(Benefit Ratio * State Experience Factor) + Fund Building Rate] = SUI tax rate

This can be loosely translated to mean “[(The percent of your workforce the state expects to file for unemployment * a cushion to help bridge the gap between how much unemployment insurance the State collects versus pays out) + some extra cushion to make the unemployment fund even bigger].”

Benefit Ratio = [(Your company’s prior year(s) Unemployment Insurance claims * The State’s Benefit Conversion Factor)/Last year’s payroll for your business].  This basically shows how much unemployment insurance your ex-employees have received relative to each $1 of the company’s total payroll. The Benefit Conversion Factor is number set by the State to adjust for the impact of negating certain tax changes.

State Experience Factor = (The amount of global SUI tax the State collected last year / The amount of unemployment insurance it paid out).  For example, if it collected $100MM of SUI and paid out $70MM of unemployment insurance, the State Experience Factor would be 142%.  There are some adjustments done to this number to net out credits & reserve requirements but for these purposes we’ll spare you that excessive brain damage.

Fund Building Rate = The extra cushion the State needs to ensure the UI fund is “solvent”.

The minimum SUI tax rate in Illinois, for example, is 0.55% = [(0*139%) + 0.55%].

The maximum rate is 9.45%.  [This is the current cap, regardless of what the Benefit Ratio is]

A few examples as provided by the IDES:

1)      Benefit Ratio of 0.031% * 139% State Experience Factor = 0.0431%, which rounds to 0.0%.  0.0% + the 0.55% Fund Building Rate = 0.55% SUI tax rate.

2)      Benefit Ratio of 1.5299% * 139% State Experience Factor = 2.1266%, which rounds to 2.1%; 2.1% + the 0.55% Fund Building Rate = 2.65% SUI tax rate.

3)      Benefit Ratio of 8.0612% * 139% = 11.2051%, which rounds to 11.2%.  Although adding the 0.55% would yield 11.75%, there is a 9.45% cap thus the SUI tax rate would be 9.45%.

The SUI tax calculation is not a fun exercise; but, as anyone with a large payroll knows, it’s an impactful number that’s important for you to understand.


Disclaimer – we’re not SUI or tax experts.  We’re not even CPAs.  We’ve just experienced the burden of the SUI tax and are trying to explain our understanding of how it works for folks new to the issue.  For detailed explanations, talk to your CPA, visit www.ides.illinois.gov, or for a good time call your local Department of Employment Security. 

Written by entrabanker

April 11, 2012 at 3:47 am